Siti preistoriċi bil-puntali madwar l-Alpi

sensiela ta’ siti preistoriċi bil-puntali qrib l-Alpi li huma Sit ta’ Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO

Is-Siti preistoriċi bil-puntali madwar l-Alpi huma sensiela ta’ insedjamenti preistoriċi (jew djar) bil-puntali fl-Alpi jew madwar iż-żona tal-Alpi li nbnew bejn il-5000 u l-500 Q.K. fix-xtut tal-lagi u tax-xmajjar jew fl-artijiet mistagħdra. Fl-2011, 111-il sit li jinsabu mifruxin fl-Iżvizzera (56), fl-Italja (19), fil-Ġermanja (18), fi Franza (11), fl-Awstrija (5), u fis-Slovenja (2) tniżżlu fil-lista tas-Siti ta’ Wirt Dinji tal-UNESCO.[1] Fis-Slovenja, iż-żewġ siti preistoriċi kienu l-ewwel Sit ta’ Wirt Dinji kulturali.[2]

Rikostruzzjoni ta’ sit preistoriku bil-puntali fil-Pfahlbau Museum Unteruhldingen fil-Lag ta’ Konstanz, il-Ġermanja
Bċejjeċ taċ-ċeramika mil-Lac du Bourget, Franza

Mill-iskavi li twettqu f’uħud mis-siti nstabet evidenza rigward il-ħajja preistorika u l-mod kif il-komunitajiet tal-qedem kienu jinteraġixxu mal-ambjent tagħhom fiż-Żmien Neolitiku u fi Żmien il-Bronż fl-Ewropa Alpina. Dawn l-insedjamenti huma grupp uniku ta’ siti arkeoloġiċi kulturali li huma ppreservati pjuttost tajjeb, li jikkostitwixxu wieħed mill-iktar sorsi importanti għall-istudju tas-soċjetajiet agrarji bikrin fir-reġjun.[1]

Kuntrarjament għat-twemmin komuni, l-insedjamenti bil-puntali ma kinux mibnija fuq l-ilma iżda fuq l-art bassasa fil-qrib. Kienu mibnija fuq il-puntali biex ikunu protetti kontra l-għargħar okkażjonali. Minħabba li l-lagi kibru fid-daqs tagħhom tul is-snin, ħafna mill-puntali oriġinali issa jinsabu taħt l-ilma, li spiss iwasslu biex l-osservaturi moderni jkollhom l-impressjoni żbaljata li minn dejjem kienu hekk.[1]

SitiEdit

Pajjiż Numru serjali tal-ID Isem Post Koordinati Daqs tal-post (ha) Żona ta’ lqugħ (ha) Data Appross. li kienu okkupati (Q.K.)
Żvizzera 1363-001 Ägelmoos Beinwil am See 47°16′43.047″N 8°12′27.44″E 0.96 10.5 2000-1000
Żvizzera 1363-002 Riesi Seengen 47°19′6.532″N 8°12′14.29″E 3.8 16.5 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-003 Vingelz / Hafen Biel/Bienne 47°7′55.585″N 7°13′24.3″E 0.6 18.4 3000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-004 Dorfstation Lüscherz 47°2′55.464″N 7°9′0.22″E 3.4 75.1 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-005 Lobsigensee Seedorf 47°1′58.487″N 7°17′59.989″E 1.1 27.6 3500-3000
Żvizzera 1363-006 Rütte Sutz-Lattrigen 47°6′18.364″N 7°12′46.78″E 2.8 49.6 3000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-007 Bahnhof Twann 47°5′43.915″N 7°9′27.74″E 2.5 18.5 4000-3000
Żvizzera 1363-008 Strandboden Vinelz 47°2′21.059″N 7°6′33.56″E 2.3 28.7 4000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-009 Les Grèves Gletterens 46°54′19.098″N 6°55′46.37″E 2.62 2.4 3500-3000
Żvizzera 1363-010 Spitz Greng 46°55′21.014″N 7°5′25.93″E 7.69 7.3 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-011 Môtier I Haut-Vully 46°57′0.889″N 7°5′19.87″E 1.42 1.3 Neolitiku
Żvizzera 1363-012 Segelboothafen Murten 46°55′47.323″N 7°6′48.28″E 2.83 4.7 3000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-013 En Praz des Gueux Prez 46°47′39.2″N 7°2′12.7″E 0.08 2.02 4000-3500
Żvizzera 1363-014 Bellerive I Collonge-Bellerive 46°15′12.03″N 6°11′25.6″E 2.4 8.87 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-015 Port Corsier 46°16′5.61″N 6°12′37.7″E 1.94 10.9 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 2000-1500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-016 Bourg Versoix 46°16′52.29″N 6°10′14.63″E 3.03 15.93 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-017 Egolzwil 3 Egolzwil 47°10′56.55″N 8°0′59.36″E 0.65 56.82 5000-4000
Żvizzera 1363-018 Seematte Hitzkirch 47°12′58.48″N 8°15′15.2″E 2.81 24.55 4000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-019 Halbinsel Sursee 47°10′13.13″N 8°7′28.27″E 3.55 67.78 4000-3500, 2500-500
Żvizzera 1363-020 Port-Conty Saint-Aubin-Sauges 46°53′25.42″N 6°46′14.73″E 1.04 7.03 4000-2000
Żvizzera 1363-021 Les Argilliez Gorgier 46°54′11.8″N 6°47′23.61″E 1.32 1.2 4000-3500
Żvizzera 1363-022 L’Abbaye 2 Bevaix 46°55′34.54″N 6°49′50.56″E 1.04 5.01 1040-986
Żvizzera 1363-023 La Saunerie Milvignes 46°58′14.3″N 6°52′17.78″E 1.51 1.63 4000-3500, 3000-2000
Żvizzera 1363-024 Les Graviers Milvignes 46°58′22.45″N 6°52′29.99″E 0.57 2.13 3500-2500, 2000-1500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-025 Kehrsiten Stansstad 47°0′7.92″N 8°21′58.65″E 1.26 5.14 4000-3000
Żvizzera 1363-026 Weier I - III Thayngen 47°44′10.11″N 8°42′16.02″E 0.48 3.44 4000-3500
Żvizzera 1363-027 Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn Hurden 47°13′10.38″N 8°48′24.6″E 4.32 20.1 3500-3000, 2000-500
Żvizzera 1363-028 Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld Hurden 47°12′43.05″N 8°48′8.22″E 2.4 16.12 3500-2500
Żvizzera 1363-029 Burgäschisee Ost Aeschi 47°10′7.33″N 7°40′20.48″E 0.3 90.69 4000-3500, 3000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-030 Inkwilersee Insel Bolken/Inkwil 47°11′55.23″N 7°39′45.79″E 0.1 45.71 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-031 Feldbach (Seegubel) Kempraten/Feldbach 47°14′19.66″N 8°47′45.96″E 7.5 15.5 4000-1000
Żvizzera 1363-032 Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum Rapperswil 47°13′14.21″N 8°48′56.55″E 0.92 49.1 2000-1500
Żvizzera 1363-033 Bleiche 2-3 Arbon 47°30′13.72″N 9°25′39.93″E 2.37 5.84 3500-3000, 2000-1500
Żvizzera 1363-034 Insel Werd Eschenz 47°39′18.87″N 8°52′1.19″E 2.8 44.08 4000-2500, 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-035 Egelsee Gachnang-Niederwil 47°33′30.45″N 8°51′46.8″E 2.97 5.94 4000-3500
Żvizzera 1363-036 Nussbaumersee Hüttwilen 47°36′53.3″N 8°48′55.05″E 3.66 16.86 5000-2500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-037 Pointe de Montbec I Chabrey 46°56′2.97″N 6°58′13.73″E 1.78 8.04 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-038 La Bessime Chevroux 46°53′14.48″N 6°53′35.57″E 1.07 22.1 4000-3500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-039 Village Chevroux 46°53′33.4″N 6°54′5.37″E 1.54 38.4 3500-2000
Żvizzera 1363-040 Stations de Concise Corcelles-près-Concise 46°50′47.16″N 6°42′57.51″E 6.5 11.5 4000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-041 Corcelettes Les Violes Grandson 46°49′4.99″N 6°40′5.27″E 2.59 17.4 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-042 Les Roseaux Morges 46°30′54.16″N 6°30′30.17″E 0.86 8.1 2000-1000
Żvizzera 1363-043 Stations de Morges Morges 46°30′36.34″N 6°30′10.3″E 2.12 7.91 2000-1000
Żvizzera 1363-044 Chenevières de Guévaux I Mur, now Vully-les-Lacs 46°56′5.88″N 7°3′17.69″E 1.04 9.73 2000-1500
Żvizzera 1363-045 Baie de Clendy Yverdon-les-Bains 46°46′48.62″N 6°39′12.77″E 1.87 38.7 4000-1500
Żvizzera 1363-046 Le Marais Yvonand 46°47′57.64″N 6°45′11.82″E 1.95 16.8 3500-2500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-047 Oterswil / Insel Eielen Zug 47°7′36.26″N 8°29′50.46″E 0.45 10.82 3000-2000
Żvizzera 1363-048 Riedmatt Zug 47°10′56.95″N 8°29′28.12″E 0.28 2.61 3500-2500, 1500-1000
Żvizzera 1363-049 Sumpf Zug 47°10′57.99″N 8°28′41.78″E 1.55 7.5 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-050 Erlenbach–Winkel Erlenbach 47°17′49.91″N 8°35′46.31″E 3.01 6.6 4000-1500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-051 Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg Greifensee 47°21′37.8″N 8°40′51.51″E 9.59 11.7 4000-2500
Żvizzera 1363-052 Meilen–Rorenhaab Meilen 47°15′50.14″N 8°39′36.82″E 0.7 4.8 4000–2500, 2000-1500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-053 Wädenswil–Vorder Au Wädenswil 47°14′48.88″N 8°39′11.64″E 1.49 22.5 3500-1500
Żvizzera 1363-054 Wetzikon-Robenhausen Wetzikon 47°20′9.05″N 8°47′8.16″E 0.92 155 4000-2500, 2000-1500, 1000-500
Żvizzera 1363-055 Zürich–Enge Alpenquai Zürich 47°21′52.06″N 8°32′19.47″E 2.93 17.4 1500-500
Żvizzera 1363-056 Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner Zürich 47°21′58.19″N 8°32′38.66″E 0.64 16.56 5000-1500, 1000-500
Awstrija 1363-057 Keutschacher See Keutschach 46°35′13.27″N 14°9′34.06″E 0.21 132.5 4000-3500, 1000-500
Awstrija 1363-058 Abtsdorf I Attersee 47°53′40.96″N 13°32′1.07″E 1.1 91.43 1500-1000
Awstrija 1363-059 Abtsdorf III Attersee 47°53′35.56″N 13°31′59.34″E 0.22 91.43 4000-3000
Awstrija 1363-060 Litzlberg Süd Seewalchen am Attersee 47°56′3.66″N 13°33′16.99″E 0.76 65.26 4000-3000
Awstrija 1363-061 See Mondsee 47°48′13.97″N 13°26′57.41″E 1.22 0.97 3500-3000
Franza 1363-062 Le Grand Lac de Clairvaux Clairvaux-les-Lacs 46°34′16.28″N 5°44′58.88″E 15.2 103.05 4000-500
Franza 1363-063 Lac de Chalain, rive occidentale Marigny, Doucier, Fontenu 46°40′19.726″N 5°46′34.84″E 50.65 96.83 5300-600
Franza 1363-064 Lac d’Aiguebelette, zone sud Aiguebelette-le-Lac, Saint-Alban-de-Montbel 45°32′36.02″N 5°48′16.85″E 0.64 42.87 3000-2500
Franza 1363-065 Baie de Grésine Brison-Saint-Innocent 45°44′11.857″N 5°53′8.43″E 4.09 31.5 1000-500
Franza 1363-066 Baie de Châtillon Chindrieux 45°47′51.878″N 5°51′3.37″E 0.91 7.6 1000-500
Franza 1363-067 Hautecombe Saint-Pierre-de-Curtille 45°44′59.23″N 5°50′27.07″E 2.03 5.7 3500-3000
Franza 1363-068 Littoral de Tresserve Tresserve 45°41′2.681″N 5°53′34.15″E 2.12 72.4 1000-500
Franza 1363-069 Littoral de Chens-sur-Léman Chens-sur-Léman 46°19′16.068″N 6°15′21.42″E 0.93 92.6 1500-500
Franza 1363-070 Les Marais de Saint-Jorioz Saint-Jorioz 45°50′6.749″N 6°10′58.29″E 0.49 4.3 4000–3500
Franza 1363-071 Le Crêt de Chatillon Sévrier 45°51′37.4″N 6°9′19.8″E 1.07 8.2 1500-500
Franza 1363-072 Secteur des Mongets Sévrier, Saint-Jorioz 45°51′11.714″N 6°9′4.64″E 0.13 63.2 2000-1500
Ġermanja 1363-073 Wangen-Hinterhorn Öhningen 47°39′39.416″N 8°56′20.02″E 2.56 3.2 4000-2500, 1500-500
Ġermanja 1363-074 Hornstaad-Hörnle Gaienhofen 47°41′40.229″N 9°0′21.30″E 13.11 72.4 4000-2500
Ġermanja 1363-075 Allensbach-Strandbad Allensbach 47°42′35.132″N 9°4′47.33″E 2.65 6.6 4000-2500
Ġermanja 1363-076 Wollmatingen-Langenrain Konstanz 47°40′29.582″N 9°7′13.32″E 1.55 83.7 1000-500
Ġermanja 1363-077 Konstanz-Hinterhausen Konstanz 47°39′54.788″N 9°11′38.65″E 4.15 4.12 4000-3500, 3000-2500
Ġermanja 1363-078 Litzelstetten-Krähenhorn 32 Konstanz 47°43′28.823″N 9°10′44.23″E 7.51 47.92 3960-3805
Ġermanja 1363-079 Bodman-Schachen / Löchle Bodman-Ludwigshafen 47°48′52.11″N 9°2′23.11″E 5.34 14.1 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 2000-1000
Ġermanja 1363-080 Sipplingen-Osthafen Sipplingen 47°47′35.304″N 9°6′7.29″E 4.61 6.23 3919-2417, 934-933
Ġermanja 1363-081 Unteruhldingen-Stollenwiesen Uhldingen-Mühlhofen 47°43′15.258″N 9°13′42.18″E 4.22 4.52 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 2000-500
Ġermanja 1363-082 Ödenahlen Alleshausen 48°7′9.163″N 9°38′27.54″E 0.97 58.02 4000-3500
Ġermanja 1363-083 Grundwiesen Alleshausen 48°6′30.744″N 9°37′35.75″E 0.54 3.42 3020-2700
Ġermanja 1363-084 Siedlung Forschner Bad Buchau 48°3′17.492″N 9°38′25.92″E 3.54 285.14 1767-1480
Ġermanja 1363-085 Olzreute-Enzisholz Bad Schussenried 47°59′54.859″N 9°41′19.26″E 1.82 20.62 3000-2500
Ġermanja 1363-086 Schreckensee Wolpertswende 47°53′18.56″N 9°34′7.77″E 1.06 7.05 3651-3263
Ġermanja 1363-087 Ehrenstein Blaustein 48°24′38.707″N 9°55′23.68″E 1.33 2.42 4000-3500
Ġermanja 1363-088 Pestenacker Weil 48°8′48.044″N 10°56′52.29″E 0.57 3.66 3495-3481
Ġermanja 1363-089 Unfriedshausen Geltendorf 48°8′32.359″N 10°57′4.28″E 0.79 7.69 3813-3535
Ġermanja 1363-090 Roseninseln Feldafing 47°56′29.522″N 11°18′33.52″E 15.16 34.3 5000-2500, 2000-500
Italja 1363-091 Palù di Livenza – Santissima Polcenigo 46°1′18.268″N 12°28′52.13″E 13.48 86.72 4766-4375, 3768-3538
Italja 1363-092 Lavagnone Desenzano del Garda 45°26′11.094″N 10°32′14.68″E 6.04 14.45 2500-1000
Italja 1363-093 San Sivino, Gabbiano Manerba del Garda 45°32′7.944″N 10°33′27.94″E 1.85 3.46 2500-1500
Italja 1363-094 Lugana Vecchia Sirmione 45°27′30.121″N 10°38′36.8″E 2.59 11.16 2500-1000
Italja 1363-095 Lucone Polpenazze del Garda 45°33′3.326″N 10°29′17.19″E 7.66 68.2 5000-3500, 2500-1500
Italja 1363-096 Lagazzi del Vho Piadena 45°6′27.544″N 10°23′34.71″E 2.77 18.46 2000-1500
Italja 1363-097 Bande - Corte Carpani Cavriana 45°22′16.878″N 10°35′9.61″E 7.33 36.4 2005-1959
Italja 1363-098 Castellaro Lagusello - Fondo Tacoli Monzambano 45°22′9.343″N 10°38′3.13″E 1.23 59.04 2000-1000
Italja 1363-099 Isolino Virginia-Camilla-Isola di San Biagio Biandronno 45°48′43.25″N 8°43′5.02″E 3.79 25.07 5000-1000
Italja 1363-100 Bodio centrale o delle Monete Bodio Lomnago 45°47′47.152″N 8°45′20.19″E 1.67 28.55 2000-1000
Italja 1363-101 Il Sabbione o settentrionale Cadrezzate 45°47′58.625″N 8°38′55.64″E 1.18 9.61 2000-1000
Italja 1363-102 VI.1-Emissario Viverone, Azeglio 45°25′5.743″N 8°1′22.44″E 5.86 852.77 2000-1000
Italja 1363-103 Mercurago Arona 45°44′1.709″N 8°33′7.6″E 5.16 270.06 2000-1000
Italja 1363-104 Molina di Ledro Ledro 45°52′26.857″N 10°45′54.05″E 0.78 2.31 1900-1300
Italja 1363-105 Fiavé-Lago Carera Fiavè 45°59′24.346″N 10°49′51.55″E 10.7 73.92 4000-3500, 2000-1000
Italja 1363-106 Belvedere Peschiera del Garda 45°27′22.705″N 10°39′30.31″E 2.52 12.46 2500-1500
Italja 1363-107 Frassino Peschiera del Garda 45°26′5.168″N 10°39′47.51″E 1.48 31.19 2000-1000
Italja 1363-108 Tombola Cerea 45°10′46.348″N 11°12′40.5″E 1.51 123.76 1500-1000
Italja 1363-109 Laghetto della Costa Arquà Petrarca 45°16′10.844″N 11°44′32.68″E 1.56 6.52 2500-1500
Slovenja 1363-110 Kolišča na Igu, severna skupina Ig 45°58′32.318″N 14°31′46.19″E 19.2 516.65 3000-1500
Slovenja 1363-111 Kolišča na Igu, južna skupina Ig 45°58′14.221″N 14°32′29.84″E 26.1 516.55 5000-2500

Sit ta’ Wirt DinjiEdit

 
Fdalijiet tal-puntali preistoriċi fi Fiavè, l-Italja
 
Fdalijiet tal-puntali taħt l-ilma f’Morges, l-Iżvizzera

Il-111-il sit preistoriku bil-puntali madwar l-Alpi ġew iddeżinjati bħala Sit ta’ Wirt Dinji transkonfinali (sitt pajjiżi) tal-UNESCO fl-2011.[1]

Il-valur universali straordinarju tas-sit ġie rrikonoxxut abbażi ta’ żewġ kriterji tal-għażla tal-UNESCO: il-kriterju (iv) “Eżempju straordinarju ta’ tip ta’ bini, ta’ grupp ta’ siti jew ta’ pajsaġġ arkitettoniku jew teknoloġiku li joħroġ fid-dieher stadju/i sinifikanti fl-istorja tal-bniedem”; u l-kriterju (v) “Eżempju straordinarju ta’ insedjament uman tradizzjonali, ta’ użu tal-art jew ta’ użu tal-baħar, li jirrappreżenta kultura (jew kulturi), jew interazzjoni umana mal-ambjent, speċjalment meta jkun sar vulnerabbli minħabba l-impatt ta’ bidla irreversibbli”.[1]

ReferenziEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (bl-Ingliż). Miġbur 2021-04-04.
  2. ^ "Maša Štiftar de Arzu, ed. (14 October 2011). "Pile-dwellings in the Ljubljansko Barje on UNESCO List" (PDF). Embassy Newsletter" (PDF).